Google Play Deployments#

These instructions define how to set up an Android product for nightly deployments to the Google Play store.

Throughout this document, wherever the term $product is used, substitute your product’s name in (replacing spaces with hyphens), e.g.: reference-browser or fenix.

Ideally, we shouldn’t use the below docs, but instead use pushapk in taskgraph.

Note: we don’t need to explicitly “create” scopes in Taskcluster. We’ll simply tell Taskcluster that our hook has some scopes, then later we’ll tell it that we’ll need those scopes to run our builds. Taskcluster will just verify that the scopes we’re using dynamically match between the build and the hook that starts the build.

  1. Request signing keys (example bug for reference-browser). Confirm with the app’s team what the “signature algorithm” and “digest algorithm” should be, and include that information in the ticket.

    • You’ll want at least one “dep” key for testing, as well as a separate “release” key for every separate app that will be created (e.g.: nightly, beta and production)

  2. Clone the product’s repository

  3. Add .taskcluster.yml in the root of the repository. This file tells Taskcluster what to do upon github events happening (push, pr, release, etc). Since we’re going to want to run taskgraph to decide what tasks to run, we can take a .taskcluster.yml from a similarly-configured repository, like fenix example)

    • Update repository and treeherder references to refer to your project, rather than fenix.

  4. Implement taskgraph configuration for the repository. See the Fenix configuration. You’ll need to implement the following parts:

    • Define tasks in YAML in taskcluster/ci/

    • Define transforms in taskcluster/$project_taskgraph/transforms/ which operate on the tasks defined in the YAML

    • Define any custom loaders in taskcluster/$project_taskgraph/loader/ (this is useful in cases like needing to generate a dynamic number of tasks based on an external source, like gradle or a .buildconfig.yml file)

    • Define Dockerfiles in taskcluster/docker/

  5. Create and update permissions in ci-configuration.

    1. hg clone

    2. Set up a virtualenv and install dependencies

    3. Update projects.yml and grants.yml to add permissions for $project

      • If you have schedule-based automation, add the taskgraph-cron feature and set cron_targets in projects.yml. Additionally, create a .cron.yml file to your repository like the one in fenix

    4. Submit your patch for review with moz-phab

    5. Once it’s landed, update to the new revision and apply it

      1. ci-admin diff --environment=production

      2. If there’s no surprises in the diff, apply it: ci-admin apply --environment=production

      3. If the diff contains changes other than the hooks and permissions you added, you can adjust the diff and apply operations with the --grep flag:

        ci-admin diff --environment=production --grep "AwsProvisionerWorkerType=mobile-\d-b-firefox-tv"

  6. Update scriptworker (example for ``fenix` <mozilla-releng/scriptworker#298>`__)

    1. Update scriptworker/ with entries for your product. Search for locations where “fenix” or “firefox-tv” were set up, and add your product accordingly

    2. In a separate commit, bump the minor version and add a changelog entry (example)

    3. Once these changes are CR’d and merged, publish the new version

      1. Update your repository against the mozilla-releng repository

      2. Check out the version-bump commit you created

      3. git tag $version, e.g.: git tag 23.3.1

      4. git push --tags && git push upstream --tags (assuming that the origin remote is for your fork, and upstream is the mozilla-releng repo)

      5. Ensure you’re in the Python virtual env for your package (One approach is to share a single virtual env between all scriptworker repos)

      6. rm -rf dist && python sdist bdist_wheel build the package

      7. Publish to PyPI:

        1. gpg --list-secret-keys --keyid-format long to get your GPG identity (it’s the bit after “sec rsaxxxx/”). An example GPG identity would be 5F2B4756ED873D23

        2. twine upload --sign --identity $identity dist/* to upload to Pypi (you may need to pip install twine first)

  7. Update configuration in


    1. Locate signing secrets (dep signing username and password, prod signing username and password, Google Play service account and password)

      1. You should’ve received signing credentials from step 1. Print out the decrypted file you received: gpg -d <file from step 1>

      2. We will want to encrypt the “dep” and “rel” credentials for the “prod” autograph instance. They can be identified as lines that contain a “list” where the second item ends with “_dep” or “_prod”, respectively

        • Example: “dep” line would be: ["http://<snip>", "signingscript_fenix_dep", "<snip>", ["autograph_apk"], "autograph"]

      3. For these two lines, the secrets we want to put in sops are the username and password (the second and third item)

      4. Later, in step 18, you’ll have been emailed a Google Play service account and key. However, for now, we’re going to use a dummy value (the string “dummy”) as placeholders for these values

    2. Add secrets to SOPS

      1. TODO

  8. Commit and push your SOPS and scriptworker-scripts changes, make a PR

  9. Once step 8’s PR is approved, merge the scriptworker-scripts PR

  10. Verify with app’s team how versionCode should be set up. Perhaps by date like fenix?

    • Note that if there’s multiple build types, they need different version codes. In the case of fenix, x86 builds have the version code incremented by 1.

  11. When the Google Play product is being set up, an officially-signed build with a version code of 1 needs to be built. So, the main automation PR for the product will need to be stunted: it needs to produce APKs with a version code of 1, and it should have pushing to Google Play disabled (so we don’t accidentally push a build before our official version-code-1 build is set up).

    1. Change the version code to be set to 1. If the product uses the same version-code-by-date schema as fenix, then edit versionCode.gradle

    2. Disable the creation of the task that pushes to Google Play

    3. Create the PR

    4. Once approved, merge the PR

  12. Verify the apk artifact(s) of the signing task

    1. Trigger the nightly hook

    2. Once the build finishes, download the apks from the signing task

    3. Using the prod certificate from step 10.iv.a., create a temporary keystore: keytool -import -noprompt -keystore tmp_keystore -storepass 12345678 -file $product_release.pem -alias $product-rel

    4. For each apk, verify that it matches the certificate: jarsigner -verify $apk -verbose -strict -keystore tmp_keystore. Check that

      • The “Digest algorithm” matches step 1

      • The “Signature algorithm” matches step 1

      • There are no warnings that there are entries “whose certificate chain invalid”, “that are not signed by alias in this keystore” or “whose signer certificate is self-signed”

    • Do the same thing for the dep signing task and certificate and check that the jarsigner command shows that the “Signed by” CN is “Throwaway Key”

  13. Request both the creation of a Google Play product and for the credentials to publish to it. Consult with the product team to fill out the requirements for adding an app to Google Play. This request should be a bug for “Release Engineering > Release Automation: Pushapk”, and should be a combination of this and this

    • As part of the bug, note that you’ll directly send an APK to the release management point of contact via Slack

  14. Give the first signed APK to the Google Play admins

    1. Perform a nightly build

    2. Once the signing task is done, grab the APK with the version code of 1 (if there’s multiple APKs, you probably want the arm one)

      • You can verify the version code of the apk with apktool, then viewing the extracted AndroidManifest.xml and looking at the platformBuildVersionCode

    3. Send the APK to release management

  15. Once the previous step is done and they’ve set up a Google Play product, put the associated secrets in SOPS

  16. Perform a new PR that un-stunts the changes from step 15 Fenix example

    • Version code should be generated according to how the team requested in step 14

    • The task that pushes to Google Play should no longer be disabled

  17. Once the PR from the last step is merged, trigger the nightly task, verify that it uploads to Google Play

  18. Update the $product-nightly hook, adding a schedule of 0 12 * * * (make it fire daily)

    • Ensure that the hook is triggered automatically by waiting a day, then checking the hook or indexes

How to test release graphs in mobile#

Use the staging android-components and staging fenix repos, along with staging shipit.

How to set up taskgraph for mobile#

Setting up taskgraph for mobile is similar to setting up taskgraph for any standalone project, especially github standalone projects: install taskgraph in a virtualenv.

⚠️ You shouldn’t install gradle globally on your system. The ./gradlew scripts in each mobile repo define specific gradle versions and are in charge of installing it locally.

  1. Install jdk8:

    # On mac with homebrew
    brew install --cask homebrew/cask-versions/adoptopenjdk8
    # On Ubuntu
    sudo apt install openjdk-8-jdk

⚠️ Currently projects like Focus and Fenix need Java 11 to run, so you might need to install that version and set your $JAVA_HOME to that version.

  1. Install android-sdk:

    # On mac with homebrew
    brew install --cask android-sdk
    # On Ubuntu
    sudo apt install android-sdk
  2. Make sure you’re pointing to the right java (depending on what version gradle requires):

    # In your .zshrc or .bashrc:
    # On mac
    export JAVA_HOME="$(/usr/libexec/java_home -v 1.8)"
    # On Ubuntu follow symlinks to find JAVA_HOME
    ls -l `which java`
    export JAVA_HOME=<JAVA_HOME>
    # After sourcing that file, you should get the following version:
    # > $JAVA_HOME/bin/java -version
    # openjdk version "1.8.0_265"
    # OpenJDK Runtime Environment (AdoptOpenJDK)(build 1.8.0_265-b01)
    # OpenJDK 64-Bit Server VM (AdoptOpenJDK)(build 25.265-b01, mixed mode)
  3. You’ll also need to setup ANDROID_SDK_ROOT:

    # In your .zshrc or .bashrc:
    # On mac
    export ANDROID_SDK_ROOT=/usr/local/Caskroom/android-sdk/4333796
    # On Ubuntu
    export ANDROID_SDK_ROOT=/usr/lib/android-sdk
    # For Ubuntu, you'll also need to grab the Android cmdline-tools (which contains sdkmanager).
    # First download the linux 'cmdline-tools' from here:
    # Then:
    mkdir $ANDROID_SDK_ROOT/cmdline-tools
    unzip <> -d $ANDROID_SDK_ROOT/cmdline-tools/latest
    export PATH=$ANDROID_SDK_ROOT/cmdline-tools/latest/bin:$PATH
    # Verify the `sdkmanager` binary is available:
    which sdkmanager
  4. You’ll need to accept all licenses before you can build the app:

    # on mac
    cd /usr/local/Caskroom/android-sdk/4333796
    yes | sdkmanager --licenses

    ⚠️ If you hit this error: Exception in thread "main" java.lang.NoClassDefFoundError: javax/xml/bind/annotation/XmlSchema you might need to either switch to java8 to accept the licenses and if that doesn’t work then run:

    yes | sdkmanager --update
    # to accept licenses for the sdkmanager itself
    yes | sdkmanager --licenses
    # to accept new licenses not previously accepted

    Additional troubleshooting tips can be found on this stack overflow thread <>

  5. Test it:

    # In, say, an android-components or fenix clone, this should work:
    ./gradlew tasks --scan
  6. You’ll need a Python 3 virtualenv with taskgraph, glean-parser, and mozilla-version as well:

    virtualenv fenix  # or whatever the repo name
    pushd ../taskgraph  # assuming taskgraph is cloned in the same dir
    python install
    pip install mozilla-version glean-parser<1
    # Verify taskgraph optimized returns tasks (You need cloned)
    # android-components
    taskgraph optimized -p ../braindump/taskcluster/taskgraph-diff/params-android-components/main-repo-release.yml
    # fenix
    taskgraph optimized -p ../braindump/taskcluster/taskgraph-diff/params-fenix/main-repo-push.yml
  7. To run

    # set $TGDIR to the braindump/taskcluster directory path
    # Fenix
    $TGDIR/taskgraph-diff/ --halt-on-failure --overwrite --params-dir $TGDIR/taskgraph-diff/params-fenix --full fenix-clean 2>&1 | tee out
    # Android-Components
    $TGDIR/taskgraph-diff/ --halt-on-failure --overwrite --params-dir $TGDIR/taskgraph-diff/params-android-components --full ac-clean 2>&1 | tee out
  8. To test taskgraph changes without braindump, run taskgraph target-graph -p parameters.yml. But you might need to go into an existing task in taskcluster and download a parameters artifact.